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Whitepapers - MIL-STD-1553


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A collection of  MIL-STD-1553 Whitepapers

A Practical Approach to Commercial Aircraft Data Buses

MIL-STD-1553 is a mature field proven technology that provides an ideal solution for emerging commercial aerospace applications. DDC is offering a wide variety of solutions based on this mature technology.


Avionics Networking Technology

Avionics system architects have a wide variety of commercial off the shelf (COTS) choices for networking technologies. The challenge facing many system architects is choosing a cost effective technology that satisfies the functional requirements of the system. This paper provides insight into some of the key architectural features of two of the most popular emerging networking technologies used in avionics today, namely, Fibre Channel and Ethernet. An overview of each architectural feature is provided along with a discussion of the system-level benefits associated with the feature. A new approach called high speed 1553 is also explored. The goal of this paper is not to evaluate these technologies against an arbitrary set of criteria to determine which is better for avionics systems, but rather to provide insight into the benefits of each technology. In reality, no one networking architecture will be “best” for all applications. Each application will contain its own unique requirements that will shape the selection decision. In many cases, the optimal solution may be a combination of several different networking technologies.

 Buses and Networks for Contemporary Avionics

MIL-STD-1553 has served the needs of military system integrators for over 30 years, particularly in the area of command and control applications. Nevertheless, contemporary applications such as high-speed digitized sensors, file transfers, processor clusters, and displays require much higher data rates than 1553’s 1Mb/s. For some environments, particularly for legacy aircraft, the optional solution is to transmit faster data rates over existing 1553 buses. However, there are other applications that can accommodate and benefit by the deployment of gigabit or multi-gigabit copper or optical switched fabric networks. In addition to MIL-STD-1553, this paper presents and comments about several avionics networking technologies including High-Speed 1553, Fibre Channel, Gigabit Ethernet, and ARINC 664, a form of profiled Ethernet.

 DDC Replacements for Obsolete Aeroflex Transceivers

Aeroflex Colorado Springs (Aeroflex) announced on April 17th, 2009 that both UT63M105 & UT63M125 (Standard Microcircuit Drawing 5962-88644), 15-Volt, MIL-STD-1553 Bus Transceivers have reached End-of-Life (EOL) status and are out of production. DDC is pleased to offer the following MIL-STD-1553 Bus Transceivers as suggested replacements for the above referenced Aeroflex EOL components. DDC replacements are lower-power and are electrically / mechanically compatible to the discontinued items which should preclude the need for a board re-design due to the transceiver obsolescence issue. There are manageable differences in both the pinout (not all pins utilized) and mechanical characteristics (through the use of standoffs, spacers, and lead forming variations) as well as minor variations in AC and DC electrical parameters due to wafer foundry and DDC’s unique design. The end user needs to compare the differences between the components and determine if they are acceptable in the customer’s specific application.

 Distributed and Reconfigurable Architecture for Flight Control Systems

This white paper discusses some evolutions for Flight Control System (FCS) and how to build alternative FCS using low-cost and safe architectures with less hardware and software resources. The paper presents a full distributed reconfigurable architecture for FCS based on smart actuators and digital communication network where all system functions are distributed to simplex Flight Control Computer (FCC) nodes and remote actuator electronics nodes (FCRM) with communication between FCC and FCRM based on a MIL-STD-1553 bus.

High Performance 1553

This white paper provides a summary of DDC’s initial study into the feasibility of running higher speed over legacy MIL-STD-1553 data buses. The results of DDC’s analysis is that for some MIL-STD-1553 buses there is sufficient bandwidth to implement a broadband system in which legacy 1 Mbps 1553B waveforms could coexist with new 200 Mbps waveforms, thus providing for an increment high speed communication channel to existing MIL-STD-1553 buses.

IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Standardizes MIL-STD-1553 Data Recording

In an effort to reap the benefits of standardization for data recorder file formats, the Range Commanders Council (RCC) and others in the US Air Force instrumentation community developed the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 standard. IRIG 106 Chapter 10 provides interoperability for such applications as test range telemetry, flight test instrumentation, mission recorders, video/data servers; surveillance and reconnaissance; health and usage monitoring; mission planning, debriefing, and training; and flight operations. In addition to file formats, Chapter 10 defines the operation of various recorder and removable media (data cartridge) interfaces. IRIG 106 Chapter 10 includes specific formats for several types of flight data, including MIL-STD-1553 buses, PCM, analog, computer-generated data, images, discretes, UARTs, IEEE 1394, parallel, IRIG time, video, and voice. In addition, Chapter 106 provides standardization of time bases.

MIL-STD-1553 Evolves with the Times

MIL-STD-1553 combines a robust physical layer with a deterministic protocol making it ideally suited for use in commercial aerospace systems. While MIL-STD-1553’s 1 megabit-per-second data rate is still adequate for a large number of applications, there are systems that require higher rates. This white paper discusses two approaches for increasing the bandwidth of MIL-STD-1553 that are gaining momentum. The use of MIL-STD-1553 is not limited to military aircraft. MIL-STD-1553’s use is pervasive in military ground vehicles, military ships, and satellite systems. All of these applications share common requirements for a deterministic, fault tolerant data bus that will operate in relatively harsh environments.

MIL-STD-1553 Goes Commercial

This paper explores some of the major attributes of MIL-STD-1553 and discusses why MIL-STD-1553 is an ideal choice for use in commercial aircraft systems.This paper explores some of the major attributes of MIL-STD-1553 and discusses why MIL-STD-1553 is an ideal choice for use in commercial aircraft systems.

MIL-STD-1553 Physical Layer for Time-Triggered Networks

Time Triggered networking technologies such as TTP (Time Triggered Protocol) are beginning to be used in critical aerospace applications such as flight controls. While TTP provides stringent specifications for determinism and fault tolerance, it does not define a physical layer. TTP’s “de facto” physical layer, RS-485, includes shortcomings in a number of areas. The first white paper in this section presents the benefits of Mil-STD- 1553 over RS-485 as a physical layer for TTP. A second white paper presents the test results of a technology demonstration of 1553 as a physical layer for TTP.

Total COTS Solutions for Embedded 1553

For contemporary avionics design, there’s a need to strategically allocate engineering resources without increasing time to market. This environment has engendered an increasing reliance on Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software, with a demand for total solutions that may be leveraged over a range of applications. This entails the needs for ruggedized hardware, along with re-usable high-level software tools. The COTS paradigm includes a focus on cost effectiveness and high reliability, along with obsolescence and end-of-life issues for both cards and components.